Germany was among the top five countries that signed the Schengen Agreement in 1985. Citizens of the post-Soviet space to visit the countries of the Schengen zone require a visa . You can come to Germany by issuing one of the types of visa documents:
- The Schengen visa is issued with an initial period of up to 90 days. It is valid for a year and gives the right to come to the country one or more times.
- The national German visa is usually issued for a period of 3 months, but if necessary, it can be extended at the state office for foreigners.
To obtain an entry permit, you must apply for a visa at the diplomatic body of the Federal Republic of Germany (embassy or consulate), which is available in your country of residence, and provide a complete set of documents. The list of documents depends on the type of visa and the purpose of the trip to Germany.
Depending on the purpose of the visit, the following types of visa documents are distinguished:
- work (labor) visa;
- student visa;
- business visa;
- tourist visa;
- visa for registration of marriage;
- visa for private trips (treatment, shopping, family reunification, visiting relatives).
Work or labor visa to Germany
A work visa gives citizens of foreign countries the right to work in Germany. This is a document that guarantees all rights and social benefits on an equal basis with the citizens of the country. Getting such a visa is much more difficult than any other. Germany strictly guards its internal labor market and provides work, first of all, to its citizens or residents of the EU countries.
Employment visa can be seasonal (issued for 6 months) or general (on average for 1 year). When applying for it, the presence of your own vacancy applicants is necessarily taken into account, for which a thorough check is carried out. To obtain a work permit, it is very important that the working conditions and remuneration of a foreign worker are no worse than those of a German specialist of the appropriate qualification.
You can apply for a visa only after receiving a written invitation from the employer. The term for issuing a work visa is 6 months. After the paperwork is completed, a visa is issued for a single entry for 90 days, for which you will need to obtain a residence permit.
A work visa grants permission only for the type of activity that is specified at the time of registration. After working for 3 years, you can change the employer, and after 5 years of work, subject to financial independence, you can apply for permanent residence and German citizenship.
Student visa to Germany
You need to start applying for a student visa after receiving an invitation to study from a German university. Documents for a visa must be submitted in the prescribed manner to the diplomatic mission of Germany at the place of residence. The review process takes 1 month. Initially, a national German visa is issued to an applicant for a 3-month period. After successfully passing the exams and enrolling, such a visa is extended for 1 year and becomes a student visa.
After 3 months of stay, the student receives a residence permit, and subsequently it must be renewed for each year of study. This requires mandatory confirmation of financial security in the amount of € 659 per month. An amount of about € 8,000 per year of study is paid in advance each time. The size of the amount changes quite often and depends on the educational institution, so all the nuances must be clarified immediately, starting to apply for a visa .
A student visa gives the right to get a job, but the number of permitted working hours in Germany is strictly regulated. International students are allowed to work 120 working days per year full-time or 240 days part-time. The whole process of legalization of students is clearly worked out, and all issues are resolved in the regional department of the department for foreign citizens of the city where the place of study is located.
Business visa to Germany
Entrepreneurs who have their own business or plan to open an enterprise in Germany can obtain a business visa (business visa). Such a visa is also issued to investors who have decided to invest in the German economy.
This type of visa is issued when the purpose of entering the country is a business event, business negotiations, meetings with partners, conclusion of contracts. You can confirm the purpose of the trip by providing a written invitation from the German side or an extract from the commercial register, certifying the fact of founding or co-founding a joint company.
A business visa belongs to the category of a general Schengen visa, it limits the length of stay and does not allow you to work in the country. Such a visa can be issued for a period of several days to 1 year and depends on the purpose of the upcoming trip. In fact, it is a multi-visa that allows multiple entry to all Schengen states within a specified period.
The first time a business visa is issued for 3 months with a permitted stay in the country up to 30 days. The second visa is for six months with a stay of 90 days, and then it can be issued for 2, 3 and 5 years. You can apply for a visa , given the quick processing time (5-7 working days), before the trip itself.
Tourist visa to Germany
A tourist visa is usually issued to visit Germany, the basis for which is the purpose of participation in cultural and other events, acquaintance with the sights of the country, recreation in tourist centers. Such a visa is issued for a clearly defined period, usually not exceeding 45 days. In exceptional cases, when providing the maximum package of documents justifying the purpose of the visit, you can get a visa for a period of 1 year with multiple visits (multivisa).
For tourism purposes, you can apply for both a national and a Schengen visa. Preferably still Schengen, which gives the right to enter the territory of all countries that have signed the agreement. If during the trip you plan to visit several countries, then the time spent in Germany should be longer than in every other country.
A visa is issued upon receipt of an invitation from the German side. If there is no such invitation, then you can apply for a visa to any other Schengen country, and from there enter Germany. According to the rules, a tourist visa is issued to the country that is considered the main purpose of the trip. A mandatory requirement in order to apply for a tourist visa is confirmation of the full payment of the hotel for the entire duration of the visit or purchase of the tour.
Documents for a visa to Germany
Applying for a visa is allowed only after receiving an invitation from the German side. The standard package of documents includes:
- A visa application written in German for a national visa and in Russian or German for a Schengen visa.
- Passport issued no later than 10 years ago, which will be valid for at least 90 days after the end of the trip.
- internal passport.
- Two color actual photographs 3.5 x 4.5.
- Confirmation of the availability of funds (an extract from a bank account or Visa card for the past 3 months).
- Visa application form in German and Russian with photo.
- Acknowledgment of responsibility for providing false information.
- Documentary guarantee of return home.
- Certificate from the place of work (study).
- Full term medical insurance policy with coverage of € 30,000.
- Receipt of booking and payment for the hotel, photocopies of tickets or financial guarantee of a German citizen.
- Payment of the visa fee (€ 35 at the exchange rate).
Each type requires its own documents for a visa , and in each individual case, in addition to the main set, it is necessary to provide additional confirmation of your relationship with the inviting party. Requirements for documents are periodically updated and changed, therefore, when starting a visa application , they must be clarified.
You can go through the process of obtaining it yourself, or with the help of specialized firms and organizations – state and commercial visa centers. In this case, you only need to collect documents and come to the interview.